Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Under religious beliefs and practices there are animism, totemism, ancestor-worship, polytheism, mono- theism. And even in such cases it may often be diflficult or impossible to decide with certainty whether similar customs have a common origin or not. Graebner himself admits that it is possible, although not proved, that identical customs grow up independently among peoples in different parts of the world ; if so. INTRODUCTION have been led quite independently to much the same general position as that of the Gennan school by the results of my ovm work in Oceania."^ If customs and institutions and ideas could speak, they might also perhaps be justilied in defending themselves against the suspicion of being mere borrowings. Gracbncr would say, as he has indeed said in a general way, that in cases of parallelism we must not apply European evidence to savages, who almost entirely lack " the conscious endeavour after further development." ' It seems as though he regarded the customs of savages as almost unchangeable, unless subject to influences from without. * Speacc T and GUIen, Naliv* Tribtt 0/ Ctntrat Austnlia, p. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE 1 And if this is the case, it is only natural that the changes often should lead to similar results in different instances.
Do not assume Ihat just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Under institutions occiu*, for instance, marriage, clanship, chieftainship, slaver^' ; and under each heat Ung there are sub-headings, hke marriage by consideration, monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, group-marriage. it is obviously also possible that identical i customs grow up independently among peoples who are of the same stock or have come into contact with one another. But there is sufficient proof that they are not so. For the possibilities in cultural development are always limited, and often limited in a very high degree.
Google This is a digita J copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. Every girl among them, before she arrives at maturity, is subject to this rite, the essential incident of which consists in the nominal husband tying a tali, or tiny plate of gold, round her neck.
ll has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enler Ihe public domain. Having p Uyed his part in the ritual and received the cus- tomary fee, the man goes his way ; he has no conjugal rights over the girl, nay in some places at Ica.'^t the fact that he has tied the tali round her neck constitutes an insur- mountable barrier to his becoming her husband in later Ufc* ' ' Navigation del captino Pedro Alvares,' in Rainusiu.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. — Criliciam ol the inference that certain savage custoras prove tne lack of )ealousy. These classifications of the various details of culture, as Tylor remarks, may be compared with the species of plants and animals as studied vot I B THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE by the naturalist. Indeed, the more similar two peoples are, the greater is the I probabi Uty that also new details in their culture should resemble each other ; from seeds of the same kind very simibr plants spring up. Among the Central Australians, for instance, changes in aboriginal custom take place from time to time, and Sd«ssis. For ex- ample, it is necessary that the bodies of the dead should be disposed of in some way or other, and there arc not many methods to choose between : hence the same method mntt- be in use among different peoples, quite independently of any culture-contact.
The work, as originally written, naturally contained a good many foreign modes of expres- Hon, Mr. British Vice-Consul at Helsingfors, who most kindly aided me in writing the first part of the book in a tongue which is not my own. It is true that the more different people are from ourselves, and the le^s we know them, the more difficult it is for us to know the motives for thdr actions ; and to understand them in every detail is beyond Rivers, ia Sccioiog Ual Retiuw. But the direct inquiry into motives is not the only way in which they may be a. Does not this show that there must be exa^eration in their criticism ? THE ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE 29 P I ^ In the lowest classes of the Vertebrata parental care is likewise almost unheard of.
Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have take D steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. — Said to be more conunon amon|; savage men tnan women, ibid. 569 tq, — Coosideration of an argument brought against the theory here advocated, p. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE INTRODUCTION ON THE METHOD OF INVESTIGATION The method followed in the present work is the com- parative method, which for half a century has been dominant among British students of social anthropology.
We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. — Naked savages covering only at dances or leativau, p, 555 tq. When ap- plied to the study of human civilisation, tliis method starts from the fact that there are great similarities between the products of culture — such as implements, weapons, objects of art, customs, institutions, and beliels— among different peoples in different countries.
Many new acts have been incorporated, and some old ones have been imitted. fi CBtory term known to rr Aer clircclly totheactof beg^ttlngor to the fa-By age, pp. - — The toirelation between the pr Meoce of ■ term of relationitup and ipctinl uitiinl relntio Ri or fanctioru aaaodated with it by no mcaiu complete, pp, 137-IJ9. rtiver«' cooduiion that certaiadtt M&catoiy terras indicate the earlier existence of cr OM-eiraiin marriage, pp. — A common nomenclature for pvnons repte^enlin^ two nr more rektioa tho child to itd father, p. — The males fighting for females among the lower animals, p. In answer to this question Tylor made the following general statement : — " Sometimes it may be ascribed to the hke working of men's minds under hke conditions, and sometimes it is a proof of blood relationship or of intercourse, direct or indirect, between the races among whom it is foimd."' Sir James G. Tylor justly spoke of " the constant difficulty in deciding whether any particular development is due to independent invention, or to transmission from some other people to those among whom it is found " ; ' and this difhculty has certainly not been removed by later investigations. Graebncr lays down two main criteria which, he thinks, enable us to trace similar culture-phenomena to a common source : first, the criterion of form, as he calls it, that is, correspondence of qualities not inlierent to the nature of the object, and secondly, that of ■ Riven, British Astociatiati for tht AAiancemtnt of St M*tc«. It is not a sufficient explanation of a custom to say that it has teen derived from ancestors or borrowed ftom neighbours.
Various aspects of marriage, which were previously leak with very inadequately or hardly touched upon, have een discussed at length. — Conclusion* drnwa from tha clunilicatory lcmi« of ir Utionnliip with refprencn to («(lter in&rri Afe cmioma ot telaliona between the lex M, pp. — Terma of re- littonahip borrowed Uam the chl Mron'i lipa, pp. ]4&-i4g ^By »oual rvlattoni, probably (torn the beginning tombined with vague iileats o J co DMn- guinity,* pp. — The MKial factor alto pmumablv felt in the duiinctlon between persons of diflrrent aex and ol dl Hermt a^e, PI' i5)-J55 — Tite inhu«Rc« of th« habit of livtag together, p. — The impo Ttancp of the aocia J factor evident in terms used in addro MJag slr;infeni. — To infer the earlier exiiteace of certain tociftl condilton* from ccnain term* of rclationahip canifli Boatc At Mbeaokhiiu more than af-uew. Frazer likewise speaks of " the essential similarity in the working of the less developed human mind among all races, which corresponds to the essential similarity in their bodily Irame revealed by comparative anatomy. ■ liem, Reuarches into the Early History of Manhin J, p. This only raises the question how it originated among those who first practised it ; for a custom must have had a be- ginning. 107 : " So bleibt denn als ersles und Gfundproblem dcr Ethnologic wis der ganien Knltnrgesduchte die Herauurbeitung der Kulturbo Elehungon." INTRODUCTION 1 themselves. 8 THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE the range of future confirmation.